In the midst of迅速崛起的情况下，数and hospitalizations during the COVID-19 pandemic, a small but incredibly loud segment of U.S. society has adamantly拒绝戴口罩。Many of them are men, who seem to view masks as emasculating face condoms that must be rejected. For example, a look at Donald Trump’s debacle of a rally in Tulsa, Oklahoma, on June 20, shows that men in his base, like Trump himself,避免戴口罩。Women like Ivanka Trump, by contrast, can choose a mask or not because they have no masculinity to protect.
In reality, whether it’s a mask or a condom, resistance to these barrier methods of protection—both of which keep the wearer from transmitting a virus to someone else—clearly presents a danger to public health. A man without a mask is willfully endangering people around him by refusing to block his spit and the viruses it could contain. Why would he take these risks to himself and to others?
When HIV emerged in the United States, a key part of the public health response was to urge consistent condom use. Although the advice made obvious sense, in some pockets of the population, people resisted it. Researchers began to dig into the social factors that motivated this resistance. They found that among men who were having sex with women,“男性意识形态”与拒绝使用安全套的相关。
At the time the research was being conducted, three factors were cited as the pillars of this ideology: status, toughness and anti-femininity. Today, the concept has been expanded a bit to encompass other features. The American Psychological Association has defined this ideology as a “标准的特定星座” that demands that men ascribe to “adventure, risk, and violence.” Certainly, choosing not to wear the simplest of protective gear during a pandemic is both a risk and an adventure.
Perhaps not surprisingly, where this conceptualization of manliness prevails, the dominant avatars who embody it are white men with epic swagger. As one researcher described it, this “赛璐珞阳刚之气” muscling around on screens, perhaps most famously in the form of characters played by Arnold Schwarzenegger, represents a “dominant Western exemplar of manhood.” These characters, you see, despite the copious body armor and weaponry they tote around in their films, would never, ever don simple barrier protection devices because viruses can sense fear.
可能预计到这种比扎罗世界的反弹，纽森联手与他的前辈幸存 - 杰里·布朗，戴维斯，皮特·威尔逊和阿诺亚博电子竞技2019德·施瓦辛格，使公共服务公告呼吁人们要戴口罩。每个州长有几行提供。施瓦辛格的台词，说出了他的赛璐珞英雄约翰·矩阵的所有hypermasculine庄严：“这不是软弱......。去做就对了。”